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<p>The authors discuss further developments and experimental applications of an in situ noncontact testing (NCT) system for printed-wire boards (PWBs). The results demonstrate the system's ability to overdrive logic circuits using the signal injection, making it an excellent means for analyzing operating hardware without disruption. The results also indicate that the NCT probe can serve well as a low-cost front end for test systems already in service.</p>

R. C. Block, D. L. Millard and K. R. Umstadter, "Applications of a Laser-Induced Plasma Pathway to Testing of Electronic Modules," in IEEE Design & Test of Computers, vol. 10, no. , pp. 67-72, 1993.
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