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<p>Systems using the three most popular probes applied to functional electrical testing, mechanical, electron beam, and laser, are reviewed. A system of noncontact testing that uses a laser-induced plasma 'switch' to provide the electrical pathway for AD and DC measurements on printed wiring boards is presented. With this technique, a DC resistance discrimination of less than 10 Omega and distortion-free AC measurements of a 2.5-MHz oscillator signal were achieved. These results are presented and evaluated.</p>

D. L. Millard, R. C. Block and K. R. Umstadter, "Noncontact Testing of Circuits Via a Laser-Induced Plasma Electrical Pathway," in IEEE Design & Test of Computers, vol. 9, no. , pp. 55-63, 1992.
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