Issue No. 04 - July/August (1986 vol. 3)
Dennis Petrich , Micro Component Technology
Production TTL and CMOS timing measurements obtained between different test systems and between test systems and the benchsetup often do not correlate or do not appear to be accurate even though the automatic test equipment system has subnanosecondaccuracy. Errors of as much as 2 ns can occur with small-, medium-, and large-scale integration and with gate arrays usingthe new TTL and CMOS technologies. This represents a 100- percent error factor for these emerging products.
Dennis Petrich, "Achieving Accurate Timing Measurements on TTL/CMOS Devices", IEEE Design & Test of Computers, vol. 3, no. , pp. 33-42, July/August 1986, doi:10.1109/MDT.1986.294974