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<p>Enhancements in computation hardware and the development of novel software have enabled virtual prototyping in several areas of science and engineering. One area of interest to the US Department of Defense is the design of directed energy devices that generate high power microwave (HPM) pulses. These devices have reasonably complex 3D geometry as well as disparate time and length scales resulting from the interaction of intense relativistic electron beams with electromagnetic energy and high-density neutral plasmas. In this article, the authors discuss the Air Force Research Laboratory's effort to bring about a paradigm shift in the design, analysis, and construction of HPM sources. This shift involves harnessing the power of high performance computing and using it throughout the research process, from analytic design through experimental testing, to generate a virtual prototyping capability for directed energy technology. The authors also discuss both the role of high performance computing in simulating complexity in general and the implementation of virtual prototyping of HPM sources, including the critical role of experiment in providing verification and validation of simulation software.</p>
high-performance computing, high power microwave pulses, directed energy devices, virtual prototyping

J. W. Luginsland and R. E. Peterkin, "A Virtual Prototyping Environment for Directed-Energy Concepts," in Computing in Science & Engineering, vol. 4, no. , pp. 42-49, 2002.
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