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Issue No. 01 - January/February (2002 vol. 4)
ISSN: 1521-9615
pp: 10-14
<p>Scientific research and development generally plays a more important role in the US and Japan than it does in the European Union, both in terms of the number of scientists per capita and the investment in research as a percentage of gross domestic product. In the EU, scientific researchers comprise about .25 percent of the industrial workforce, compared with .67 percent in the US and .60 percent in Japan.1 In 1998, according to data obtained by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), total R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP was 1.9 percent for the EU, 2.6 percent for the US, and 3.0 percent for Japan (see Figure 1). However, in 1997, according to OECD data, the total number of doctorates obtained in the EU was 66,653, compared with 44,610 in the US and 7,366 in Japan. Of those in EU countries, 2,652 were in computer science and math (or 4 percent of total PhDs), compared to 2,135 (or 4.8 percent of total) in the US (data not available for Japan). The same study reports that Germany, the UK, and France awarded the highest number of computer science and math PhDs among EU countries.</p>

P. Messina and N. Forbes, "Computer Science Today in the European Union," in Computing in Science & Engineering, vol. 4, no. , pp. 10-14, 2002.
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