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Along with the impressive progress of computer technology over the past three decades, computational physics has evolved into a dynamic discipline that plays an important role in many different fields. Its contribution has been particularly profound in the areas of condensed-matter physics, chemistry, and materials science, where most problems involve complex many-body systems. In the overwhelming majority of cases it is impossible to obtain analytical solutions to these problems, and numerical techniques are generally the only realistic option.

S. Yip, M. de Koning, A. Antonelli and W. Cai, "Efficient free-energy calculations by the simulation of nonequilibrium processes," in Computing in Science & Engineering, vol. 2, no. , pp. 88-96, 2000.
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