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Issue No. 08 - August (2012 vol. 45)
ISSN: 0018-9162
pp: 82-84
William H. Boothby , Royal Air Force, United Kingdom
Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg , Europa-Universit&#x00E4:t Viadrina, Germany
James Bret Michael , Naval Postgraduate School
Michael N. Schmitt , US Naval War College
Thomas C. Wingfield , George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies
ABSTRACT
A cyberattack involving military or intelligence operations might not rise to the level of a “use of force” under international law.
INDEX TERMS
Computer crime, Military communication, Network security, Computer security, law of armed conflict, security, cyberattacks, armed attacks, cyberwarfare
CITATION

W. H. Boothby, W. Heintschel von Heinegg, J. B. Michael, M. N. Schmitt and T. C. Wingfield, "When Is a Cyberattack a Use of Force or an Armed Attack?," in Computer, vol. 45, no. , pp. 82-84, 2012.
doi:10.1109/MC.2012.282
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