Issue No. 10 - Oct. (2011 vol. 44)
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2011.307
The IEEE Computer Society offers a lineup of 13 peer-reviewed technical magazines that cover cutting-edge topics in computing, including scientific applications, design and test, security, Internet computing, machine intelligence, digital graphics, and computer history. Select articles from recent issues of Computer Society magazines are highlighted below.
Successful videogame developers must contend with the difficulties of ensuring that their product is fun. Addressing this soft requirement, incorporating nontrivial multimedia, and other domain-specific concerns bring novel challenges to software development. Software's September/October special issue on "Engineering Fun" presents articles that illustrate the difficulties in designing and producing applications that must somehow result in an enjoyable player experience while still satisfying the demands of a large, complex, graphical, real-time, and distributed application.
Cyber-physical-social systems (CPSSs) provide an ideal paradigm for the design and construction of command and control organization. In the July/August issue of IS, "Cyber-Physical-Social Systems for Command and Control" presents the concept of a CPSS for command and control and discusses its operational process and self-synchronization mechanism. The authors propose a CPSS that incorporates the essential characteristics of an operational mechanism and connects physical networks, cyberspace, mental space, and social networks.
In "Virtual Prototyping of Shoes" in the September/October issue of CG&A, a team of authors from the Chemnitz University of Technology proposes a VR-based system for prototyping shoes that employs a user interface that mimics a designer's conventional work style. Using a pen and a shoe last as 3D proxy objects, users can sketch design lines onto the last. The system employs an algorithm for real-time sketch recognition on curved surfaces. On the basis of the framework of curves, the system creates further design elements (for example, leather pieces) to complete the model. Users can employ three pen-based interaction metaphors to interact directly with design elements, to input values, or to make choices from a menu. A user study shows that conventional designers can easily learn and apply these interaction methods.
Writing in the September/October issue of CiSE, a team of medical researchers from Indiana and Washington suggests a new model for image-guided radiation therapy in "Survey: Real-Time Tumor Motion Prediction for Image-Guided Radiation Treatment." Tumor motion caused by a patient's breathing creates challenges for accurate radiation dose delivery to a tumor while sparing healthy tissues. IGRT helps, but a lag time remains between tumor position acquisition and delivering a radiation dose to that position. An efficient and accurate predictive model is thus an essential requirement for IGRT success.
Security & Privacy
Information security is fast becoming a cyber-industrial complex, and as researchers have discovered, complex systems have notable side effects, including the potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power. Writing in the July/August issue of S&P, Daniel E. Geer Jr. of In-Q-Tel looks at the risks of power imbalances associated with complex systems in "Eisenhower Revisited."
This year, the car celebrates its 125th birthday. In 1886, Karl Benz applied for a patent for a motorcar, the Benz Patent-Motorwagen. The sole function of this mechanical device was providing individual transportation. Since then, cars have changed enormously. Safety and comfort have become major drivers of innovation in the field. In the past 30 years, computing technology has changed cars fundamentally. Many mechanical functions are now computer-controlled or linked by digital networks. Today, innovation in the automotive industry is largely due to information technology. The July-September issue of PvC covers the ever-evolving world of automotive pervasive computing.
"Adversarial Machine Learning," by J.D. Tygar of the University of California, Berkeley, briefly introduces the emerging field of adversarial machine learning, in which opponents can cause traditional machine learning algorithms to behave poorly in security applications. Tygar gives a high-level overview and mentions several types of attacks, as well as several types of defenses, and describes theoretical limits derived from a study of near-optimal evasion. Read Tygar's article in the September/October issue of IC.
The July/August issue of Micro focuses on big chips, highlighting some of the tradeoffs inherent in large processors with respect to performance capability, power density challenges, scalability of communication, and packaging and cooling costs. This issue also explores new technologies that can achieve the effect of big chips, such as 3D integration, along with associated tradeoffs. Read more in "Big Chips and Beyond," by IBM's Erik R. Altman.
MultiMedia guest editors Jian Lu of Shanda Innovations, Xian-Sheng Hua of Microsoft, and Dong Xu of Nanyang Technological University introduce the magazine's July-September issue in "Visual Content Identification and Search."
The past few years have witnessed rapid development and commercialization of visual content identification and search technologies that are concerned with identifying and searching visual content, particularly image and video content, based on visual similarities. This special issue contains several research articles covering a diverse range of topics in visual content identification and search.
Advances in social computing can help firms enhance and leverage internal capabilities, such as knowledge work and collaboration, and seamlessly integrate the vast information resources available on the Internet. Many firms, however, are still developing the practices that will enable them to leverage social networking in the enterprise. Read "Social Networking in the Enterprise" in IT Pro's July/August issue to learn more about the role of social networks in a business setting.
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the high-end Swedish camera manufacturer Hasselblad struggled to integrate its product lines with emerging digital imaging technology. Hasselblad's history illustrates how digital technology emerges in various high-end niche applications and later enters the mainstream markets and displaces incumbents. The Hasselblad case exemplifies how incumbent firms encounter difficulties when such technologies render their skills and products obsolete. Read more about these challenges and solutions in "Hasselblad and the Shift to Digital Imaging," by Christian Sandström of Chalmers University of Technology, in the July-September issue of Annals.