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Virtualization trims administrative overhead, eases system management, and combats OS-level security vulnerabilities. However, it also exhibits new characteristics and exposes new vulnerabilities that can be detrimental to securing the system.
Nancy Wilkins-Diehr, Dennis Gannon, Gerhard Klimeck, Scott Oster, and Sudhakar Pamidighantam
A large distributed cyberinfrastructure for open scientific research, TeraGrid currently includes 25 platforms at 11 sites and provides access to more than a petaflop of computing power and petabytes of storage. A major part of TeraGrid's wide initiative to broaden its user base is the Science Gateways program.
To explain the program's conceptual basis and illustrate supporting services that have evolved within TeraGrid, the authors highlight four successful science gateways: the Computational Chemistry Grid (GridChem), Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD), nanoHUB.org, and the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG).
Satoshi Matsuoka, Kazushige Saga, and Mutsumi Aoyagi
In addition to being a national grid middleware development project, Japan's National Research Grid Initiative (NAREGI) includes several e-Science applications run in tandem with middleware R&D to identify the use cases that would benefit from the grid. This project focuses on application-specific middleware components to "grid-enable" large-scale nanoscience and chemistry applications, including those that require the coupling of multiple applications.
Many of the mechanisms the authors describe are application-area agnostic and can be applied to other disciplines, such as weather and climate simulations, multiresolution simulation in life sciences, and other complex systems.
Craig Lee and George Percivall
The Open Geospatial Consortium and the Open Grid Forum are collaborating to develop open standards that address the distributed computing needs of geospatial applications while accommodating the inevitability of diverse formats, schemas, and processing algorithms. These standards will provide the necessary infrastructure for developing tools, software, and services that work together and can be used by multiple communities. They will support interoperability and the development and wide adoption of shared best practices, as well as help technology providers and users innovate and leverage one another's strengths and accomplishments.
Joel Saltz, Tahsin Kurc, Shannon Hastings, Stephen Langella, Scott Oster, David Ervin, Ashish Sharma, Tony Pan, Metin Gurcan, Justin Permar, Renato Ferreira, Philip Payne, Umit Catalyurek, Enrico Caserta, Gustavo Leone, Michael C. Ostrowski, Ravi Madduri, Ian Foster, Subhashree Madhavan, Kenneth H. Buetow, Krishnakant Shanbhag, and Eliot Siegel
Researchers are harnessing dramatic advances in many biomedical technology areas to better understand the causes of disease and to direct disease treatment. The authors' work explores the critical role e-Science plays in enabling translational biomedical research—the process of developing and applying basic science knowledge and techniques to enable new ways of diagnosing and staging, treating, or preventing diseases, as well as the adoption of best practices in the community.
Ron Perrott, Terry Harmer, and Rhys Lewis
The broadcasting domain faces many of the challenges that e-Science technology aims to address. In addition, broadcasting's quality-of-service and security requirements are more challenging than those in the research domain. To address these issues, the authors have been working with the BBC to create prototype infrastructures for broadcasting and digital media applications using e-Science technology.