Issue No. 05 - May (2004 vol. 37)
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2004.10043
THE INDUSTRY (p. 9). "Dr. Ruth M. Davis, Director of the NBS Center for Computer Sciences and Technology. … identified eight major sub-industries within the once-monolithic 'computer industry'. These are as follows: manufacture of large main frames, minicomputers, suppliers of peripherals, leasing organizations, software suppliers, computer services, facility management and networking. In contrast to the relatively modest number of large main-frame manufacturers, there are currently more than 60 manufacturers of minicomputers, resulting in a keenly competitive situation."
MODULAR SYSTEMS (p. 15). "Some attempt was made to predict the organization of the future commercially available systems built around modularity concepts. It was postulated that such systems would contain several small processors ... which would themselves be modular at level dictated by the availability of LSI functional modules. … This architecture, featuring many inexpensive processors, would permit individual processors to be idle at times resulting in operating systems of less complexity than those of today."
DESIGN AUTOMATION (p. 20)."As we move to more complex technologies and more demanding design requirements, both with their many and increasingly interrelated constraints, we turn more and more to the computer to help produce the product, particularly for documentation, checking, and analysis capabilities. In the synthesis area we look towards the symbiosis of man and computer as a means of obtaining better solutions than either one could produce alone."
"With LSI, the cost of design changes is so large that it is important that the system be error-free before being committed to hardware. It is for this reason that most component vendors have developed quite sophisticated DA systems which usually include programs for simulation, test generation, placement, wire routing and artwork generation."
MAGNETIC TAPE CARTRIDGE (p. 62). "Extremely high performance characteristics are claimed for a uniquely designed quarter-inch tape cartridge for data processing systems which was introduced by 3M Company …
"High acceleration and operating speeds and gentle tape handling qualities required by digital recording systems are achieved by a band-drive design which tightly couples the tape packs and provides a unique differential constant tension drive. The data cartridge is rated for speeds to 180 in/sec and acceleration and deceleration of 2,000 in/sec 2. This precise tape motion permits recording of up to 4 tracks and 1,600 bits per inch."
ANIMATED PROGRAMS (p. 14). "Computer programs, like many other dynamic and abstract processes, are often best understood by observing graphical simulations of their behavior. Graphical displays of a program in action expose some properties that we might otherwise find difficult to understand or even notice. Moreover, this communication medium becomes even more powerful if we interact with such animations by controlling both the program being simulated and the way information is presented. Algorithm animation environments follow this paradigm for exploring computer programs."
DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING (p. 50). "Heterogeneous software and hardware environments present special problems in distributed computing. To attack these problems, we have developed The Heterogeneous Environment for Remote Execution. THERE is a general-purpose 'metaservice' designed to simplify the adaptation of non-networked, nonheterogeneous applications to a distributed heterogeneous environment. Existing applications made accessible with THERE become heterogeneous network services, and users of those services become heterogeneous network clients."
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT (p. 61). " The [US] Defense Science Board Task Force Report on Military Software issued in 1987 highlighted the concern that traditional software process models were discouraging more effective approaches to software development such as prototyping and software reuse."
"The spiral model … is one candidate for improving the software process model situation. The major distinguishing feature of the spiral model is that it creates a risk-driven approach to the software process rather than a primarily document-driven or code-driven process."
E-MAIL (p. 80). "The National Science Foundation and more than a dozen universities plan to begin using UMExpres, a prototype of an electronic editing and mailing system for exchanging complex scientific documents between different brands of computers."
A 64-BIT ARCHITECTURE (p. 92). "Apollo Computer has announced a family of what the company calls personal supercomputers, based on the Parallel Reduced Instruction Set Multiprocessing architecture. PRISM reportedly features multiprocessing techniques and 64-bit architecture."
"Each CPU has its own integer processing unit, floating-point processor, cache memory, and memory management unit. … [S]hared operating system code ensures that each free processor selects the next-highest priority process from a common ready-process queue."