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Debashis Saha and Amitava Mukherjee
Pervasive computing promises to make life simpler via digital environments that sense, adapt, and respond to human needs. Yet we still view computers as machines that run programs in a virtual environment.
Pervasive computing presumes a different vision. A device can be a portal into an application-data space, not just a repository of custom software a user must manage. An application is a means by which a user performs a task, not software written to exploit a device's capabilities. And a computing environment is an information-enhanced physical space, not a virtual environment that exists to store and run software.
Barry Boehm and Li Guo Huang
The information technology field's accelerating rate of change makes feedback control essential for organizations to sense, evaluate, and adapt to changing value propositions in their competitive marketplace. Although traditional project feedback control mechanisms can manage the development efficiency of stable projects in well-established value situations, they do little to address the project's actual value, and can lead to wasteful misuse of an organization's scarce resources.
The value-based software engineering agenda seeks to integrate value considerations into current and emerging software engineering principles and practices, while developing an overall framework in which they compatibly reinforce each other.
Alan M. Davis
Driven by an increasingly competitive market, companies add features and compress schedules for the delivery of every product, often creating a complete mismatch of requirements and resources that results in products failing to satisfy customer needs.
Medical personnel must deal with similar considerations when treating disaster victims—a practice dubbed triage. They systematically categorize victims into those who will die whether treated or not, those who will resume normal lives whether treated or not, and those for whom medical treatment may make a significant difference. Determining what requirements a product will satisfy can benefit from a similar triage process.
Ian Gorton, Anna Liu, and Paul Brebner
Over the past decade, the adoption of commercial off-the-shelf middleware products across the software industry has gathered significant momentum. While COTS middleware products demonstrably solve many problems, their adoption and use are by no means straightforward. Competition among products that apparently offer identical services complicates the COTS middleware selection process, especially when competing products provide different implementations of standards-based technologies, such as Corba and Java 2 Enterprise Edition.
The Middleware Technology Evaluation project represents a significant attempt to provide rigorously derived, in-depth technology evaluations for use by middleware product adopters.
Pedro García López and Antonio F. Gómez Skarmeta
The Internet's ubiquity has fostered many computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) environments recently. These include instant messaging services, peer-to-peer file-sharing systems, multiuser games, and shared workspace systems.
Key factors in facilitating the advent of these environments include the use of open systems that permit system interoperability; advances in database, computer graphics, and display technology; and widespread acceptance of networking technologies and protocols. To address the deficiencies of existing toolkits, the authors created the ANTS CSCW component framework, which proposes new solutions at the conceptual, architectural, and technological levels.
Xin Chen and Xiaodong Zhang
The diverse server, client, and unique file object types used today slow Web performance. Caching alone offers limited performance relief because it cannot handle many different file types easily.
One solution combines caching with Web prefetching: obtaining the Web data a client might need from data about that client's past surfing activity. The prediction by partial match model, for example, makes prefetching decisions by reviewing URLs clients have accessed on a particular server, then structuring them in a Markov predictor tree. The authors propose a variation of this model that builds common surfing patterns and regularities into the tree.