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<p>To meet the diverse needs of business, education, and personal video users, the authors developed three visual interfaces that help identify potentially useful or relevant video segments. In such interfaces, keyframes—still images automatically extracted from video footage—can distinguish videos, summarize them, and provide access points. Well-chosen keyframes enhance a listing's visual appeal and help users select videos.</p><p>Keyframe selection can vary depending on the application's requirements: A visual summary of a video-captured meeting may require only a few highlight keyframes, a video editing system might need a keyframe for every clip, while a browsing interface requires an even distribution of keyframes over the video's full length.</p><p>The authors conducted user studies for each of their three interfaces, gathering input for subsequent interface improvements. The studies revealed that finding a similarity measure for collecting video clips into groups that more closely match human perception poses a challenge. Another challenge is to further improve the video-segmentation algorithm used for selecting keyframes. A new version will provide users with more information and control without sacrificing the interface's ease of use.</p>
Andreas Girgensohn, Lynn Wilcox, John Boreczky, "Keyframe-Based User Interfaces for Digital Video", Computer, vol. 34, no. , pp. 61-67, September 2001, doi:10.1109/2.947093
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