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<p>In a quest for semiconductor materials and processes, researchers focus on self-assembly, drawing from chemistry, biology, material science, and electrical engineering. In nature, self-organization and self-assembly are holistic processes. The tools and methods for synthesizing living matter represent the union of several disciplines (from mathematics and information theory; physics, chemistry, and biology; to philosophy and endogenetics). Engineers aim to apply living processes to improve the quality of life. </p> <p>The authors consider opportunities for and barriers to realizing practical applications of self-assembly from the perspectives of information theory, synergetics, and selected areas of physical and life sciences.</p> <p>When an electronic device's features are large, the process is metabolic-like and economically controlled. As the features shrink to nanometers, manufacturers pay a high price for the morphological information required to maintain system fidelity. This article shows how today's researchers can apply self-assembly principles to fabricate simple, uniform arrays of small quantum dots. The authors inspire readers to look to the future when we can use self-assembly to fabricate nanoelectronic device architectures. </p>

V. V. Zhirnov and D. J. Herr, "New Frontiers: Self-Assembly and Nanoelectronics," in Computer, vol. 34, no. , pp. 34-43, 2001.
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