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<p>The emerging dominance of software in the lifecycle of our information systems, coupled with the risk and uncertainty associated with its development and maintenance, are increasing information systems vulnerability. Global interconnected-ness through the Internet and the increasing use of supervisory control and data acquisition systems to remotely operate the critical infrastructure through the telecommunications network have rendered our information systems more vulnerable to intrusion and the transmission of malicious misinformation and signals.</p> <p>For all practical purposes, international boundaries have been eliminated in cyber-space. The growth of information technology and almost universal access to computers have enabled hackers and would-be terrorists to attack information systems and critical infrastructures worldwide.</p> <p>The authors describe the hierarchical holographic modeling framework, which promotes a systemic process for assessing risk to critical infrastructures.</p>

R. Pethia, C. Chittister, Y. Y. Haimes and T. A. Longstaff, "Are We Forgetting the Risks of Information Technology?," in Computer, vol. 33, no. , pp. 43-51, 2000.
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