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The solution to increasing traffic congestion is not to simply build new roads. Instead, researchers hope to use technology to make more efficient use of the highway network that already exists. Key efforts to date have fallen into two categories. One set of studies has looked at the use of a centralized traffic management center that collects traffic congestion information at a single point and relays it to on-board computers in vehicles or directly to the drivers. Another set of studies has looked at systems that would prescribe the routes for vehicles. The authors describe their Dicaf (distributed scalable architecture for IVHS using a continuous-function congestion measure) system, which envisions a network of distributed, independent traffic management centers that provide congestion and other information to on-board navigation systems in the automobiles themselves. The navigation system uses that information to help drivers avoid slower traffic and thus find the fastest route home or anywhere.

S. Ghosh and N. Utamaphethai, "Dicaf: A Distributed Architecture for Intelligent Transportation," in Computer, vol. 31, no. , pp. 78-84, 1998.
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