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<p>Based on their research at Carnegie Mellon University, these authors also argue for billion-transistor uniprocessors. Like Patt et al., they divide the important implementation problems into three components: instruction flow, register dataflow, and memory dataflow. They also argue for trace caches and advanced branch prediction. Their article, however, focuses on using massive speculation at all levels to improve performance. They claim that without this much speculation, future processors will be limited by true data dependences, and will be unable to harvest enough instruction-level parallelism (ILP) to improve performance satisfactorily. Their investigations discovered large speedups on code that have traditionally not been amenable to finding ILP. </p>

J. P. Shen and M. H. Lipasti, "Superspeculative Microarchitecture for Beyond AD 2000," in Computer, vol. 30, no. , pp. 59-66, 1997.
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