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<p>In the late 1980s the Defense Mapping Agency began converting their paper maps into digital format. A military standard known as Vector Product Format emerged as the format for storing digital vector data. The VPF relational data model, however, has problems representing complex spatial data. In 1991, the US Navy, a DMA database user, began investigating how object technology could improve its digital maps. This research led to the development of the Object Vector Product Format, an object-oriented approach to viewing and editing digital maps and charts. By combining multiple relational databases into a single OO database, OVPF offers users such key advantages as the ability to immediately update and modify the content of the original data. Over the course of developing OVPF we have also learned some valuable lessons about managing OO projects. Our experiences have given us insight into some important risk-management techniques, including how to manage the expectations of decision-makers and sponsors and how to implement effective training methods. anaging the OVPF project was much more rewarding than most due to the greatly increased productivity offered by an OO approach. </p>

K. Shaw, M. Chung, M. Cobb and D. Arctur, "Managing the US Navy's First OO Digital Mapping Project," in Computer, vol. 29, no. , pp. 69-74, 1996.
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