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<p>The risk and duration of a surgical intervention can be greatly reduced with the successful generation of a model of the human body that allows surgery to be simulated realistically. Computerized anatomy representations described so far do not meet this requirement. The authors describe a true space-filling "virtual body" model that overcomes the drawbacks of earlier systems. The key idea underlying the new approach is to combine in a single framework a detailed spatial model enabling realistic visualization with a symbolic model of human anatomy. The spatial model is derived from a living person with computerized and magnetic resonance tomography. The symbolic model--implemented with the technique of semantic networks--contains standard textbook knowledge. The resulting virtual-body model allows the computer user to act like a virtual anatomist, radiologist, or surgeon.</p>

U. Tiede et al., "A 'Virtual Body' Model for Surgical Education and Rehearsal," in Computer, vol. 29, no. , pp. 25-31, 1996.
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