Issue No. 03 - March (1995 vol. 28)
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/2.366154
In traditional user interfaces, syntax (visual attributes) and semantics (behavioral aspects) are separate with semantics usually being defined by programmers. Non-programmers cannot easily define the semantics of these user interfaces. We propose a pen-based visual programming paradigm, Form/Formula (ff), to permit user-definable user interfaces. Since a visual language is easier to learn, we expect non-programmers to be comfortable with the paradigm. In the ff paradigm the user first specifies the layout of the interface (form) using a graphic editor equipped with a shape/handwriting/gesture recognizer. The semantics of the form is defined by a directed graph of nested boxes (formula). A combination of forms and formulas is used to define graphic user interfaces as well as database queries. The ff paradigm is incorporated into the Hyperflow language implemented on the PenPoint operating system for educational applications.
T. D. Kimura, S. Sengupta, A. Apte and J. W. Chan, "Form/Formula," in Computer, vol. 28, no. , pp. 27-35, 1995.