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<p>I/O subsystem manufacturers attempt to reduce latency by increasing disk rotation speeds, incorporating more intelligent disk scheduling algorithms, increasing I/O bus speed, using solid-state disks, and implementing caches at various places in the I/O stream. In this article, we examine the use of caching as a means to increase system response time and improve the data throughput of the disk subsystem. Caching can help to alleviate I/O subsystem bottlenecks caused by mechanical latencies. This article describes a caching strategy that offers the performance of caches twice its size. After explaining some basic caching issues, we examine some popular caching strategies and cache replacement algorithms, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of caching at different levels of the computer system hierarchy. Finally, we investigate the performance of three cache replacement algorithms: random replacement (RR), least recently used (LRU), and a frequency-based variation of LRU known as segmented LRU (SLRU).</p>

R. Karedla, J. S. Love and B. G. Wherry, "Caching strategies to improve disk system performance," in Computer, vol. 27, no. , pp. 38-46, 1994.
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