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<p>A methodology for continuously monitoring a program for specification consistency during program execution is described. Prior development of the formal specification and program is assumed. The program is annotated with constructs from a formal specification language, and the formal specification constructs are transformed into checking code, which is then inserted into the underlying program. Calls to this checking code are inserted into underlying program wherever it can potentially become inconsistent with its specification. If an inconsistency does in fact occur, diagnostic information is provided. The implementation of such a system for Anna (annotated Ada) subtype annotations is presented.</p>
Manas Mandal, Sriram Sankar, "Concurrent Runtime Monitoring of Formally Specified Programs", Computer, vol. 26, no. , pp. 32-41, March 1993, doi:10.1109/2.204684
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