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<p>Several research contributions and commercial ventures related to wormhole routing, a switching technique used in direct networks, are discussed. The properties of direct networks are reviewed, and the operation and characteristics of wormhole routing are discussed in detail. By its nature, wormhole routing is particularly susceptible to deadlock situations, in which two or more packets may block one another indefinitely. Several approaches to deadlock-free. routing, along with a technique that allows multiple virtual channels to share the same physical channel, are described. In addition, several open issues related to wormhole routing are discussed.</p>

L. M. Ni and P. K. McKinley, "A Survey of Wormhole Routing Techniques in Direct Networks," in Computer, vol. 26, no. , pp. 62-76, 1993.
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