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<p>The structure and conformational dynamic changes that occur in cytoskeletal proteins within living cells and evidence for their participation in computational processing are described. The role of cellular automata, in which lattice subunits with discrete states interact only with nearest neighbors, in molecular computing is discussed. Simple rules governing subunit neighbor interactions can lead to complex behaviour capable of computation. It is shown that cellular automata may be implemented in the conformational relationships among neighboring protein subunits of cytoskeletal polymers including microtubules, and microtubule conformational automata networks may signal, adapt, recognize, and subserve neural-level learning.</p>

S. R. Hemeroff, A. V. Samsonovich, S. Rasmussen, J. E. Dayhoff and R. Lahoz-Beltra, "Models for Molecular Computation: Conformational Automata in the Cytoskeleton," in Computer, vol. 25, no. , pp. 30-39, 1992.
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