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<p>An overview is given of Formula (an abbreviation for Forth Music Language), a language for controlling synthesizers that can model the expressiveness of a human performance. Formula supports algorithmic composition, interactive performance, and programmed interpretation of traditional scores. It uses concurrent processes that share a single address space and are scheduled by the runtime system. Note-playing processes compute sequences of pitches and play these pitches as notes or chords. Auxiliary processes are attached to note-playing processes or groups to supply note parameters such as volume, duration, and articulation. Input-handling processes execute when input arrives from a particular device. Two representative Formula programs are described.</p>

D. P. Anderson and R. Kuivila, "Formula: A Programming Language for Expressive Computer Music," in Computer, vol. 24, no. , pp. 12-21, 1991.
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