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<p>A unified methodology for modeling both soft and hard real-time systems is presented. Techniques that combine the effects of performance, reliability/availability, and deadline violation into a single model are used. An online transaction processing system is used as an example to illustrate the modeling techniques. Dynamic failures due to a transaction violating a hard deadline are taken into account by incorporating additional transitions in the Markov chain model of the failure-repair behavior. System performance in the various configurations is considered by using throughput and response-time distribution as reward rates. Since the Markov chains used in computing the distribution of response time are often very large and complex, a higher level interface based on a variation of stochastic Petri nets called stochastic reward nets is used.</p>
Kishor S. Trivedi, Steven P. Woolet, Jogesh K. Muppala, "Real-time Systems Performance in the Presence of Failures", Computer, vol. 24, no. , pp. 37-47, May 1991, doi:10.1109/2.76285
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