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<p>Requirements imposed on both the object data model and object management by the support of complex objects are outlined. The basic concepts of an object-oriented data model are discussed. They are objects and object identifiers, aggregation, classes and instantiation mechanisms, metaclasses, and inheritance. Object-oriented models are compared with semantic, relational, and Codasyl models. Object-oriented query languages and query processing are considered. Some operational aspects of data management in object-oriented systems are examined. Schema evolution is discussed.</p>

L. Martino and E. Bertino, "Object-Oriented Database Management Systems: Concepts and Issues," in Computer, vol. 24, no. , pp. 33-47, 1991.
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