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<p>Existing fault-tolerant clock synchronization algorithms are compared and contrasted. These include the following: software synchronization algorithms, such as convergence-averaging, convergence-nonaveraging, and consistency algorithms, as well as probabilistic synchronization; hardware synchronization algorithms; and hybrid synchronization. The worst-case clock skews guaranteed by representative algorithms are compared, along with other important aspects such as time, message, and cost overhead imposed by the algorithms. More recent developments such as hardware-assisted software synchronization and algorithms for synchronizing large, partially connected distributed systems are especially emphasized.</p>

K. G. Shin, P. Ramanathan and R. W. Butler, "Fault-Tolerant Clock Synchronization in Distributed Systems," in Computer, vol. 23, no. , pp. 33-42, 1990.
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