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Issue No. 09 - September (1990 vol. 23)
ISSN: 0018-9162
pp: 8, 10-23
<p>Formal methods used in developing computer systems (i.e. mathematically based techniques for describing system properties) are defined, and their role is delineated. Formal specification languages, which provide the formal method's mathematical basis, are examined. Certain pragmatic concerns about formal methods and their users, uses, and characteristics are discussed. Six well-known or commonly used formal methods are illustrated by simple examples. They are Z, VDM, Larch, temporal logic, CSP, and transition axioms.</p>

J. M. Wing, "A Specifier's Introduction to Formal Methods," in Computer, vol. 23, no. , pp. 8, 10-23, 1990.
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