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Issue No. 07 - July (1990 vol. 23)
ISSN: 0018-9162
pp: 73-83
<p>The defects that can occur when manufacturing VLSI ICs and the faults that can result are described. Some commonly used restructuring techniques for avoiding defective components are discussed. Several defect-tolerant designs of memory ICs, logic ICs, and wafer-scale circuits are presented. Yield models for predicting the yield of chips with redundancy are introduced, and the optimal amount of redundancy is determined.</p>

A. D. Singh and I. Koren, "Fault Tolerance in VLSI Circuits," in Computer, vol. 23, no. , pp. 73-83, 1990.
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