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Issue No. 07 - July (1990 vol. 23)
ISSN: 0018-9162
pp: 19-25
<p>The basic concepts of fault-tolerant computing are reviewed, focusing on hardware. Failures, faults, and errors in digital systems are examined, and measures of dependability, which dictate and evaluate fault-tolerance strategies for different classes of applications, are defined. The elements of fault-tolerance strategies are identified, and various strategies are reviewed. They are: error detection, masking, and correction; error detection and correction codes; self-checking logic; module replication for error detection and masking; protocol and timing checks; fault containment; reconfiguration and repair; and system recovery.</p>

V. P. Nelson, "Fault-Tolerant Computing: Fundamental Concepts," in Computer, vol. 23, no. , pp. 19-25, 1990.
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