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<p>The authors review a large number of document development systems for both text and graphics from the perspectives of source-language and direct-manipulation models. They describe the task domain and discuss the pros and cons of direct-manipulation techniques versus a programming-language source code and of a procedural versus declarative schemes. They then establish a framework for analyzing and designing multiple-representation systems. The central theme is that program constructs and visual feedback are complementary to each other and that a hybrid approach would be most desirable.</p>

M. A. Harrison and P. Chen, "Multiple Representation Document Development," in Computer, vol. 21, no. , pp. 15-31, 1988.
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