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Issue No. 04 - July/August (2009 vol. 29)
ISSN: 0272-1716
pp: 19-25
Paul Kanyuk , Pixar Animation Studios
A major challenge of making WALL•E was creating believable physics for human and robot crowds. To do this, Pixar technical directors combined a custom spring-physics system in the Massive software platform with traditional simulation methods. The performance was fast enough to scale for large crowds and maintain interactivity for previews.
physics-based animation, crowd simulation, motion signal processing, spring physics, fake physics, behavioral animation, computer graphics

P. Kanyuk, "Brain Springs: Fast Physics for Large Crowds in WALL•E," in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 29, no. , pp. 19-25, 2009.
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