Issue No. 04 - July/August (2009 vol. 29)
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MCG.2009.59
Paul Kanyuk , Pixar Animation Studios
A major challenge of making WALL•E was creating believable physics for human and robot crowds. To do this, Pixar technical directors combined a custom spring-physics system in the Massive software platform with traditional simulation methods. The performance was fast enough to scale for large crowds and maintain interactivity for previews.
physics-based animation, crowd simulation, motion signal processing, spring physics, fake physics, behavioral animation, computer graphics
Paul Kanyuk, "Brain Springs: Fast Physics for Large Crowds in WALL•E", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 29, no. , pp. 19-25, July/August 2009, doi:10.1109/MCG.2009.59