• Paloc et al. present an approach for real-time simulation of tissue cutting and deformation during surgical interventions. They discuss mass spring as well as finite-element simulations performed on structures with online manipulated topology.
• Reitinger et al. use VR technologies to plan resections of liver tumors. They have developed new interaction paradigms and immersive visualization techniques.
• Morris et al. present a comprehensive training system for bone drilling procedures. The VR simulation includes multimodal rendering as well as haptic tutoring.
• Basdogan et al. perform in vivo soft tissue characterization, and they transfer the results of these measurements to their real-time deformation algorithms.
• Lamata et al. develop a conceptual framework with the aim to analyze and evaluate laparoscopic VR simulators. They present an extensive overview to existing simulation systems and detail the results of their comparable studies.
Georgios Sakas is a head of department at the Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Darmstadt, and is an adjunct professor of biomedical engineering at the National Technical University of Athens. His research interests include medical imaging with emphasis on therapy (visualization, VR/AR, navigation, simulation and training, and planning systems) and contemporary fields of image processing, such as 3D object reconstruction, content-based retrieval, and multimedia content analysis. Sakas has a PhD in computer graphics from the Technische Universität Darmstadt. Contact him at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ulrich Bockholt leads the Medicine and Virtual Reality Group within the Virtual and Augmented Reality department at the Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics. His research interests include haptic rendering, VR-assisted rehabilitation, and surgical simulation. Bockholt has a PhD from the Technische Universität Darmstadt. Contact him at Ulrich.Bockholt@igd.fhg.de.