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<p>The authors analyze dynamic properties of rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors in order to derive a principle of tactile displays. They show that Meissner corpuscles with coiled axons and Pacinian corpuscles with layered lamellae are suited to detect equivoluminal distortion of skin. Combining these analyses with a model of contact and relative motion between an object and the skin, the authors show that a prerequisite for tactile displays is to apply shear stress that can be spatially dispersed on the skin surface and temporally modulated with a stick-slip frequency determined by parameters of the object to be displayed. As a device satisfying the prerequisite, the authors propose a tactile display using surface acoustic waves (SAWs). The fineness of the grain of the surface can be changed continuously by controlling the SAWs' burst frequency.</p>

T. Nara, T. Higuchi, M. Takasaki, S. Tachi, T. Maeda and S. Ando, "Surface Acoustic Wave Tactile Display," in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 21, no. , pp. 56-63, 2001.
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