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Animated characters can play the role of teachers or guides, teammates or competitors, or just provide a source of interesting motion in virtual environments. The characters in a compelling virtual environment must have a wide variety of complex and interesting behaviors and must be responsive to the user's actions. The difficulty of constructing such synthetic characters currently hinders the development of these environments, particularly when realism is required. We present one approach to populating virtual environments, using dynamic simulation to generate characters' motion. We explore the effectiveness of this approach with two virtual environments: the Border Collie Environment, in which the user acts as a border collie to herd robots into a corral, and the Olympic Bicycle Race Environment, in which the user participates in a bicycle race with synthetic competitors.
David C. Brogan, Jessica K. Hodgins, Ronald A. Metoyer, "Dynamically Simulated Characters in Virtual Environments", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 18, no. , pp. 58-69, September-October 1998, doi:10.1109/38.708561
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