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Technologies for computer animation enable users to generate, control, and interact with life-like representations of humans in virtual worlds. Such worlds may be 2D, 3D, real-time 3D, or real-time 3D and shared with other participants at remote locations. Users can produce virtual humans and interact with them. Doing so requires an interface and some model of how the virtual human behaves in response to some external stimulus or the presence of another virtual human in the environment. Programming behavioral models with emotional responses and encapsulating them in virtual humans is a current challenge for research. A principal challenge of current work is to facilitate interesting and engaging responses from virtual humans with nondeterministic behaviors to reflect how real people interact in real time.

M. Cavazza, N. Magnenat-Thalmann, D. Thalmann and R. Earnshaw, "Motion Control of Virtual Humans," in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 18, no. , pp. 24-31, 1998.
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