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Traditional geographic information systems (GIS) user interfaces are not designed with human factors in mind. Studies of GIS users have shown that there is a strong relationship between time spent on errors and compatibility of the user's and the GIS's conceptual model. We propose an alternative GIS user interface designed using a formal mathematical model and human factor engineering, and based on direct manipulation of icons representing spatial and temporal data layers that we call landscapes. Our implementation and analysis suggest that usability is improved in our system over traditional GIS user interfaces. Further, we extended our GIS to temporal landscapes, a feature not present in other GIS user interfaces.

R. Jain and T. T. Elvins, "Engineering a Human Factor-Based Geographic User Interface," in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 18, no. , pp. 66-77, 1998.
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