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Tactile and force sensations must be stimulated in addition to visual and auditory ones to give a virtual world a high sense of presence. The authors have developed a tactile display that uses 50 vibrating pins to convey object surface texture sensations to the user's fingertip. They used tactile sensation scaling to obtain a linear sensation scale of the display output by means of the JND (just noticeable difference) method. One-dimensional curves on the scale were displayed to investigate human sensitivity to intensity change rates. This article introduces a tactile texture presentation method using object images and discusses some experiments performed to elucidate the method's effectiveness. The texture discrimination test examined the effect of texture element size to the correct separation. The authors compared the sensations produced by the display-image data of five wallpaper samples-to those produced by a real object using several samples with vertical lines and no low frequencies.
Shuichi Fukuda, Yasushi Ikei, Kazufumi Wakamatsu, "Vibratory Tactile Display of Image-Based Textures", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 17, no. , pp. 53-61, November-December 1997, doi:10.1109/38.626970
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