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The design of effective human-machine interfaces is one of the more challenging and exciting issues facing engineers today. Many virtual environment (VE) designers approach this problem by examining how humans interact with their natural environment. In essence, they attempt to mimic the various methods that humans use to gather information via the sensory modalities. The intent of this approach is to present task-relevant information in a form that is familiar, compellingly realistic, and intuitive to humans. Now VE designers seek ways to coordinate visual information with other sensory modalities. As part of our research on multimodal VE interfaces, the authors of this article supplemented a visual display with direct vestibular stimulation to add tilting and rolling sensations to training VEs. They discuss here their method and rationale and report the results from several experiments using vestibular stimulation in a training VE.

M. W. Haas, J. A. Cunningham, L. J. Hettinger, G. E. Riccio, J. D. Cress and G. R. McMillan, "Integrating Vestibular Displays for VE and Airborne Applications," in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 17, no. , pp. 46-52, 1997.
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