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A frameless stereotactic surgical system, used to indicate the 3D location of an operative site relative to radiographic data such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) images, was mated with a freehand optical digitizing localizer, as the means of defining the precise spatial coordinates of the site of interest. This system was evaluated for accuracy and efficacy on a Plexiglas model, a plastic replica of the skull, and three patients. The median error between the position indicated on the computer screen and the real location was 2-3 mm (P > 0.95). The accuracy was significantly better (1.5-2.5 mm) when comparing points close to where the patient was registered to the data. Ninety-five percent of all errors were less than 6 mm. This system has many advantages over conventional frame based systems, with accuracy comparable to commonly used units.
computed tomography (CT), three-dimensional; image processing, computer-assisted; stereotaxic techniques; computers, examination control; skull, abnormalities; skull, neoplasms

D. W. Kennedy, D. M. Long, D. A. Leopold, S. A. Tebo and S. J. Zinreich, "An Optical 3D Digitizer for Frameless Stereotactic Surgery," in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 16, no. , pp. 55-64, 1996.
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