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Force feedback can be thought of as a concept that was motivated by the phenomenon of contact. Efforts were made to describe cross sections in interfaces and methodologies to realize force feedback from differences in the cross sections. Based on this discussion, the concept of Surface Display was developed, and technical issues and solutions for technical issues were suggested. The concept of Surface Display is an idea which presents the surface of a virtual object to the user, rather than the sensation of force or tactile sense caused by contact with a virtual object. The prototype device consisted of a mechanism which forms arbitrary surfaces and uses sensors to measure the force affected on the surface. Control and calculation methods for this device were also implemented. The system was then evaluated through experiments using subjects.
virtual reality, haptic interfaces, force feedback

M. Hirose and K. Hirota, "Providing Force Feedback in Virtual Environments," in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 15, no. , pp. 22-30, 1995.
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