The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.03 - May (1995 vol.15)
pp: 43-52
The usual approach for producing an animation is to render each frame as if it were a single, isolated image. Badt described a technique for using reprojection (shifting pixel values between frames) to create approximate ray-traced animation frames of diffuse polygons. The technique described in this paper extends and improves Badt's algorithm, allowing exact frames and full ray-tracing. The method retains primary ray and first-level shadow ray information between frames using a process that becomes more efficient as the complexity of object intersection tests increases. In test sequences, the algorithm attains up to 92% savings in rendering time.
Display algorithms, Ray-traced animation, Spatial Coherence, Temporal Coherence
Stephen J. Adelson, Larry F. Hodges, "Generating Exact Ray-Traced Animation Frames by Reprojection", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.15, no. 3, pp. 43-52, May 1995, doi:10.1109/38.376612
1. T. Whitted, “An Improved Illumination Model for Shaded Display,” Comm. ACM, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 343-349, 1980.
2. T.A. Foley, D.A. Lane, and G.M. Nielson, “Towards Animating Ray-Traced Volume Visualization,” J. Visualization and Computer Animation, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1990, pp. 2-8.
3. J. Chapman, T.W. Calvert, and J. Dill, “Exploiting Temporal Coherence in Ray Tracing,” Proc. Graphics Interface 90, Canadian Information Processing Society, 1990, pp. 196-204.
4. P.S. Heckbert and P. Hanrahan, “Beam Tracing Polygonal Objects,” Computer Graphics, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1984, pp. 119-127.
5. J. Amanatides, "Ray Tracing With Cones," Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH '84 Proc.), vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 129-135, July 1984.
6. R.L. Cook, T. Porter, and L. Carpenter, "Distributed Ray Tracing," Computer Graphics (Proc. Siggraph 84), Vol. 18, July 1984, pp. 137-145.
7. M. Shinya, “Spatial Anti-Aliasing for Animation Sequences with Spatio-Temporal Filtering,” SIGGRAPH '93 Proc., vol. 27, pp. 289-296, 1993.
8. S.M. Rubin and T. Whitted, "A 3-Dimensional Representation for Fast Rendering of Complex Scenes," Computer Graphics, vol. 14, pp. 110-116, July 1980.
9. A.S. Glassner, “Space Subdivision for Fast Ray Tracing,” IEEE CG&A, Vol. 4, No. 10, Oct. 1984, pp. 15-22.
10. A. Fujimoto, T. Takayu, and K. Iwata, "ARTS: Accelerated Ray-Tracing System," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 6, No. 4, April 1986, pp. 16-26.
11. C. Bouville, “Bounding Ellipsoids for Ray-Fractal Intersection,” Computer Graphics, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1985, pp. 45-52.
12. T.L. Kay and J.T. Kajiya, “Ray Tracing Complex Surfaces,” Computer Graphics, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1985, pp. 269-278.
13. H. Hubschman and S.W. Zucker, “Frame to Frame Coherence and the Hidden Surface Problem: Constraints for a Convex World,” ACM Trans. Graphics, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1982, pp. 129-162.
14. A.S. Glassner, “Spacetime Ray-Tracing For Animation,” IEEE CG&A, Vol. 8, No. 2, March 1988, pp. 60-70.
15. S. Badt, Jr., “Two Algorithms Taking Advantage of Temporal Coherence in Ray Tracing,” Visual Computer, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1988, pp. 123-132.
16. J. Chapman, T.W. Calvert, and J. Dill, “Spatio-Temporal Coherence in Ray Tracing,” Proc. Graphics Interface 91, Canadian Information Processing Society, 1991, pp. 101-108.
17. C.H. Séquin and E.K. Smyrl, “Parameterized Ray Tracing,” Computer Graphics (Proc. Siggraph), Vol. 23, No. 3, July 1989, pp. 307-314.
18. K. Murikami and K. Hirota, “Incremental Ray Tracing,” Proc. Eurographics Workshop on Photosimulation, Realism, and Physics, 1990, pp. 15-29.
19. D.A. Jevans, “Object Space Temporal Coherence for Ray Tracing,” Proc. Graphics Interface 92, Canadian Information Processing Society, 1992, pp. 176-183.
20. S.E. Chen and L. Williams, “View Interpolation for Image Synthesis,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '93, pp. 279-288, Aug. 1993.
21. H.E. Cline et al., “Two Algorithms for the Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Tomograms,” Medical Physics, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1988, pp. 320-327.
22. B. Gudmundsson and M. Randen, “Incremental Generation of Projections of CT-Volumes,” Proc. First Conf. Visualization and Biomedical Computing, IEEE Press, Piscataway, N.J., 1990, pp. 27-34.
23. A. Kaufman, “Introduction to Volume Visualization,” Course Notes #8, Siggraph 92, ACM, New York, Aug. 1992.
24. J.D. Ezell and L.F. Hodges, “Some Preliminary Results on Using Spatial Locality to Speed Up Ray Tracing of Stereoscopic Images,” SPIE Proc., Vol. 1256, SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1990, pp. 298-306.
25. S.J. Adelson and L.F. Hodges, “Visible Surface Ray-Tracing of Stereoscopic Images,” Proc. 30th Ann. Southeast Conference, ACM, New York, 1992, pp. 148-157.
26. S.J. Adelson and L.F. Hodges, “Stereoscopic Ray Tracing,” Visual Computer, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1993, pp. 127-144.
27. L. Harrison and D.F. McAllister, “Implementation Issues in Interactive Stereo Systems,” in Stereo Computer Graphics and Other True 3D Technologies, D.F. McAllister, ed., Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1993, pp. 119-151.
28. S.J. Adelson, “Stereoscopic Projections: Parallel Viewing Vectors, Rotations, and Shears,” Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Report LA-UR-94-0115, Los Alamos NationalLaboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1994.
29. S.J. Adelson, Efficient Generation of Stereoscopic Images and Applications to Animation, doctoral dissertation, Georgia Inst. Technology, Atlanta, 1993.
30. T.C. Meyer, “Efficiency Techniques for Ray Tracing Computer Graphics,” undergraduate research project for Larry F. Hodges, College of Computing, Georgia Inst. Technology, Atlanta. Copies available from Hodges.
15 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool