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<p>A methodology that addresses important issues concerned with the underlying graphical models designed for surgical simulation, as well as issues related to the real-time interactivity with, and manipulation of, these models is presented. The specific application of interest is laparoscopic surgery, which is performed using endoscopes that present a video image of the organs to the clinicians. The surgeon then performs the surgery while looking at the video monitor. The particular focus is gall bladder surgery, which involves various gastrointestinal organs. The overall objective is to simulate this environment by creating realistic, manipulable models of these organs. The models are interactively manipulable and exhibit behavior both visually acceptable and physically accurate. The approach is based on the notion of active surfaces. The rationale, mathematical formalism, and visualization techniques encompassed by the methodology are described. Recent results obtained from applying these methods to the problem of endoscopic gall bladder surgery simulation are presented.</p>

N. Ezquerra, E. Palm, T. Gadacz, R. Rowe, S. Cover and J. O'Brien, "Interactively Deformable Models for Surgery Simulation," in IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 13, no. , pp. 68-75, 1993.
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