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Issue No.04 - July/August (1988 vol.8)
pp: 13-23
<p>A description is given of a series of studies in computational neuroscience that illustrate the application of computer graphics and image processing to the reconstruction and representation of the complex architectures that make up primate visual cortex. Techniques are demonstrated for reconstructing brains in three dimensions, 'peeling' them apart, and flattening the brain with minimal metric error. Simulations of natural images as they are mapped in the brain by these architectures are shown, including the simulation of a stereo image at the level of primary visual cortex.</p>
Eric L. Schwartz, Bjorn Merker, Estarose Wolfson, Alan Shaw, "Applications of Computer Graphics and Image Processing to 2D and 3D Modeling of the Functional Architecture of Visual Cortex", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol.8, no. 4, pp. 13-23, July/August 1988, doi:10.1109/38.7745
1. D.M. Daniel and D. Whitteridge, "The Representation of the Visual Field on the Cerebral Cortex,"J. Physiology, Vol. 159, 1961, pp. 203-221.
2. M.T.T. Wong-Riley, "Changes in the Visual System of Monocularly Sutured or Enucleated Cats Demonstrable with Cytochrome Oxidase Histochemistry,"Brain Research, Vol. 171, 1979, pp. 11-28.
3. L. Sokoloff et al., "The 14C-Deoxyglucose Method for the Measurement of Local Cerebral Glucose Utilization. Theory, Procedure and Normal Values in the Conscious and Anesthetized Albino Rat,"J. Neurochemistry, Vol. 28, 1977, pp. 897-916.
4. W. Kaplow and E.L. Schwartz, "Preparing and Repairing Serial Sections of Brain for 3D Reconstruction: The Brain Spackler," Comp.Neurological, Tech. Report, Vol. CNS-TR-17-86, 1986, NYU Medical Center/Computational Neuroscience Laboratories, N.Y.
5. C. Frederick and E.L. Schwartz, "Exploiting Scan Plane Order To Construct a Fast Brain Peeler,"Comp. Neurological. Science Tech. Reports, Vol. CNS-TR-5-87, 1987.
6. G. Frieder, D. Gordon, and R.Q. Reynolds, "Back-to-Front Display of Voxel-Based Objects,"CG&A, Jan. 1985, pp. 52-60.
7. E. Keppel, "Approximating Complex Surfaces by Triangulation of Contour Lines,"IBM J. Research Development, Jan. 1975, IBM, Yorktown Heights, N.Y., pp. 2-11.
8. H. Fuchs. Z. M. Kedem, and S. P. Uselton, "Optimal surface reconstruction from planar contours,"Commun. ACM, vol. 20, Oct. 1977.
9. H. Christiansen and M. Stephenson,MOVIE.BYU, University Press, Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah, 1983.
10. O.D. Faugeras, M. Hebert, D. Mussi, and J.D. Boissonnat, "Polyhedral Approximation of 3-D Objects Without Holes,"Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, Vol. 25, 1984, pp. 169-183.
11. J.D. Boissonnat, "Geometric Structures for Three-Dimensional Shape Representation,"ACM Trans. Graphics, Jan. 1987, pp. 266-286.
12. K. Anjyo, T. Ochi, Y. Usami, and Y. Kawashima, "A Practical Method of Constructing Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Digitized Space,"The Visual Computer, Feb. 1987, pp. 4-12.
13. A. Shaw, W. Light, and E.L. Schwartz, "Finding, Labeling, and Parsing 2.5D Contours of a Surface in 3D: A Semantics and Syntax for Automatic Triangulation,"Comp. Neurological Tech. Report, Vol. CNS-TR-6-86, NYU Med.Ctr./Computation Neuroscience Laboratories, N.Y., 1986.
14. E.L. Schwartz and B. Merker, "Computer-Aided Neuroanatomy: Differential Geometry of Cortical Surfaces and an Optimal Flattening Algorithm,"CG&A, Mar. 1986, pp. 36-44.
15. J.S.B. Mitchell, D.M. Mount, and C.H. Papadimitrious, "The Discrete Geodesic Problem,"SIAM J. Computation, Aug. 1987, pp. 647-668.
16. E. Wolfson and E.L. Schwartz, "Computing Minimal Distances in Arbitrary Two-Dimensional Polyhedral Surfaces,"CIMS Tech. Report, Vol. 255, NYU Courant Inst., N.Y., 1987.
17. E.L. Schwartz, "Computational Anatomy and Functional Architecture of Striate Cortex: A Spatial-Mapping Approach to Perceptual Coding,"Vision Research, Vol. 20, 1980, pp. 645-670.
18. E.L. Schwartz, "On the Mathematical Structure of the Retinotopic Mapping of Primate Striate Cortex,"Science, Vol. 227, 1985, p. 1066.
19. B.M. Dow, A.Z. Snyder, R.G. Vautin, and R. Bauer, "Magnification Factor and Receptive Field Size in Foveal Striate Cortex of Monkey,"Experimental Brain Research, Vol. 44, 1981, pp. 213-228.
20. D.C. Van Essen, W.T. Newsome, and J.H.R. Maunsell, "The Visual Representation in Striate Cortex of the Macaque Monkey: Asymmetries, Anisotropies, and Individual Variability,"Vision Research, Vol. 24, 1984, pp. 429-448.
21. P. Rakic, "Principles of Neuronal Migration,"Handbook of Sensory Physiology, W.M. Cowan, ed., American Physiological Society, Bethesda, Md., 1987.
22. E.L. Schwartz, "The Development of Specific Visual Projections in the Monkey and the Goldfish: Outline of a Geometric Theory of Receptotopic Structure,"J. Theoretical Biology, Vol. 69, 1977, pp. 655-685.
23. D.H. Hubel and D.C. Freeman, "Projection into the Visual Field of Ocular-Dominance Columns in Macaque Monkey,"Brain Research, Vol. 122, 1977, pp. 336-343.
24. F. P. Preparata and M. I. Shamos,Computational Geometry, an Introduction. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985.
25. S. LeVay, D.H. Hubel, and T.N. Wiesel, "The Pattern of Ocular-Dominance Columns in Macaque Visual Cortex Revealed by a Reduced Silver Stain,"J. Comp. Neurology, Vol. 159, 1975, pp. 558-576.
26. B.P. Bogert, W.J.R. Healy, and J.W. Tukey, "The Frequency Analysis of Time Series for Echoes: Cepstrum Pseudo-Autocovariance, Cross-Cepstrum and Saphe Cracking,"Proc. Symp. Time Series Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, N.Y., 1963, pp. 209-243.
27. A.V. Oppenheim and R.W. Shafer,Digital Signal Processing, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1975.
28. Y. Yeshurun and E.L. Schwartz, "Cepstral Filtering on a Columnar Image Architecture: A Fast Algorithm for Binocular Stereo Segmentation," To be published inIEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.
29. Y. Yeshurun and E.L. Schwartz, "Shape Description with a Space-Variant Sensor: Algorithms for Scan-Path, Fusion and Convergence over Multiple Scans,"IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, to appear 1988.
30. A. Rojer and E.L. Schwartz, "A New Pattern Classifier Motivated by Brain Architecture: Towards a Calculus of Maps,"Courant Inst. of Math. Sciences, Tech. Rpt., Vol. 203, 1988, NYU Courant Inst., N.Y.
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