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Until about 1970, programming languages and their compilers were perhaps the most active system software area. Because of its technical position at that time, IBM made significant contributions to this field. This retrospective concentrates on two languages, Algol 60 and PL/I, because with them compiler development reached an historical peak within IBM's European laboratories. The Boeblingen, Hursley, and La Gaude labs were involved in compiler projects for a period of 10 to 15 years. This article considers the development of programming in general, the author's experience, and the responsibility of the different laboratories. As a consequence of IBM's "unbundling"' decision in 1969, programming language activity within IBM's European laboratories decreased considerably, and other software activities were initiated. Some of the lessons learned at that time are still useful today.
History, Computer languages, Program processors, Programming

A. Endres, "Early Language and Compiler Developments at IBM Europe: A Personal Retrospection," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 18-30, 2013.
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