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Issue No.04 - Oct.-Dec. (2012 vol.34)
pp: 78-82
Donald D. Chamberlin , University of California, Santa Cruz
In this Anecdotes department article, Don Chamberlin details his early work with Ray Boyce designing the relational language SQL. After meeting E.F. (Ted) Codd at a symposium at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, in 1972, Boyce and Chamberlin believed that it should be possible to design a relational language that would be accessible to users without formal training in mathematics or computer programming. Their early work on the Sequel language at IBM eventually evolved into the SQL international standard.
History, Computer languages, SQL, Relational databases, SQL standard, history of computing, relational data model, Ted Codd, Sequel, SQL, IBM, Ray Boyce
Donald D. Chamberlin, "Early History of SQL", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.34, no. 4, pp. 78-82, Oct.-Dec. 2012, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2012.61
1. “CODASYL Data Base Task Group,” April 71 Report, ACM, 1971.
2. E.F. Codd introduced the operators of relational algebra in “Relational Completeness of Data Base Sublanguages,” IBM Research Report RJ 987, Mar. 1972. Several versions of the relational algebra exist, all of which include some version of the operators used in this paper. There is no recognized standard notation for these operators. The notation used in this article is taken from H. Garcia-Molina, J. Ullman, and J. Widom, Database Systems: the Complete Book, Prentice-Hall, 2002, pp. 189–237.
3. E.F. Codd, “A Data Base Sublanguage Founded on the Relational Calculus,” Proc. ACM SIGFIDET Workshop on Data Description, Access, and Control, ACM Press, 1971, pp. 35–68.
4. R. Boyce et al., “Specifying Queries as Relational Expressions: the SQUARE Sublanguage,” Comm. ACM, vol. 18, no. 11, 1975, pp. 621–628.
5. D. Chamberlin and R. Boyce, “SEQUEL: A Structured English Query Language,” Proc. ACM SIGFIDET Workshop on Data Description, Access, and Control, ACM Press, 1974, pp. 249–264. See also sequel-1974.pdf.
6. R. Boyce and D. Chamberlin, “Using a Structured English Query Language as a Data Definition Facility,” IBM Research Report RJ1318, Dec. 1973.
7. The Boyce-Codd Normal Form is a database design discipline taught in most advanced textbooks on database management. For example, see R. Ramakrishnan and J. Gehrke, Database Management Systems, 3rd ed., McGraw Hill, 2003, pp. 615–617.
8. D. Chamberlin et al. “SEQUEL 2: A Unified Approach to Data Definition, Data Manipulation, and Control.” IBM J. Research and Development, vol. 20,Nov. 1976, p. 560.
9. See the ANSI/ISO/IEC 9075-1, Information technology - Database languages - SQL - Part 1: Framework (SQL/Framework); ANSI/ISO/IEC 9075-2, Information technology - Database languages - SQL - Part 2: Foundation (SQL/Foundation); and so on at http:/ or http:/
10. E.F. Codd., “Does Your DBMS Run by the Rules?” Computer World, vol. 21, Oct. 1985. See also's_12_rules .
11. ANSI/ISO/IEC 9075-4, Database Language SQL, Part 4: Persistent Stored Modules (SQL/PSM); http:/
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