• parts of a differential analyzer of Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo (1952–1955),
• HIPAC MK-1 parametron computer (1957),
• NEAC-1101 parametron computer (1958),
• MELCOM-1101 transistor computer (1963),
• ASPET/71 optical character reader (1971),
• Busicom 141-PF electronic calculator (1971),
• NEAC System 100 office computer (1974),
• MCC board with LSI packages for FACOM M190/Amdahl 470V6 (1976),
• automated teller terminal AT-20P (1977),
• FAST LISP of Kobe University (1978–1979),
• EVLIS Machine of Osaka University (1978–1979), and
• T1100 laptop computer (1985).
• Akira Yoshino: For pioneering contribution to the development and commercialization of the lithium-ion battery.
• Norman Abramson and Robert M. Metcalfe: For outstanding leadership resulting in the invention, standardization, and commercialization of Internet packet access, beginning with ALOHAnet and then Ethernet.
First Real-Time Speech Communication on Packet Networks, 1974–1982
In August 1974, the first real-time speech communication over a packet-switched network was demonstrated via the ARPANET between MIT Lincoln Laboratory and USC Information Sciences Institute. By 1982, these technologies enabled Internet packet speech and conferencing linking terrestrial, packet radio, and satellite networks. This work in real-time network protocols and speech coding laid the foundation for voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications and related applications including Internet video conferencing.
Reference and Notes