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Issue No. 01 - Jan.-March (2012 vol. 34)
ISSN: 1058-6180
pp: 92-98
Ramesh Subramanian , Quinnipiac University
<p>In 1971 Murray Turoff, a computer scientist working in the Office of Emergency Preparedness, Executive Offices of the President of the United States, was tasked with developing an electronic information and communication system to aid the US government's response to emergencies. The resulting Emergency Management Information System and Reference Index (EMISARI), based on a smaller system Turoff created the previous year, is often considered the first computer-mediated, multimachine communications and conferencing system and an early precursor to many of today's chat, messaging, conferencing, and collaboration systems. Turoff's later work with Starr Roxanne Hiltz at the New Jersey Institute of Technology resulted in the development of a next-generation computer-mediated conferencing (CMC) system, the Electronic Information Exchange System (EIES), and the publication of their acclaimed 1978 book <it>The Network Nation</it>.</p>
history of computing, Murray Turoff, The Network Nation, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Office of Emergency Preparedness, computer-mediated conferencing, Electronic Information Exchange System (EIES), Emergency Management Information System and Reference Index (EMISARI), computer-based communications, networked communities

R. Subramanian, "Murray Turoff: Father of Computer Conferencing," in IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 34, no. , pp. 92-98, 2012.
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