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Issue No.01 - Jan.-March (2012 vol.34)
pp: 60-73
David Laws , Computer History Museum, Mountain View
<p>RCA had an established research capability and transistor manufacturing facility in place during the early years of the semiconductor industry. Its early microcircuit research&#x2014;including Torkel Wallmark's work using the bipolar unijunction transistor in the late 1950s, Paul Weimer's thin-film transistor, and Steve Hofstein's metal-oxide silicon transistor&#x2014;led to RCA's pioneering effort in the production of complementary (CMOS) silicon integrated circuits in the late 1960s and 1970s.</p>
history of computing, Ahrons, Burns, CMOS, Hofstein, Herzog, integrated circuit, Johnson, memory, MOS, Radio Corporation of America, RCA, Stanley, UJT, Wallmark, Weimer
David Laws, "Industrial Research in Microcircuitry at RCA: The Early Years, 1953–1963", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.34, no. 1, pp. 60-73, Jan.-March 2012, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2011.62
1. T. Stanley, "Oral History of Thomas (Tom) Stanley," Computer History Museum, no. X5278. 2009.
2. H. Choi and C.C.M. Mody, "The Long History of Molecular Electronics: Microelectronics Origins of Nanotechnology," Social Studies of Science, vol. 39, no. 1, 2009, pp. 11–50.
3. See G. Rostky, "The Hybrid Microcircuit (1958–68)," and other articles at http://www.chipsetc.comthe-hybrid-microcircuit.html .
4. A. Magoun personal comm. with R. Ahrons, Mar. 2011.
5. R.L. Henry Jr., "Modular Electronic Assembly," US patent 2774014, Patent and Trademark Office, 11 Dec. 1956.
6. H. Johnson, "Semiconductor Phase Shift Oscillator and Device," US patent 2816228, Patent and Trademark Office, filed 21 May 1953, issued 10 Dec. 1957.
7. H. Johnson and J.T. Wallmark, "Shift-Register Utilizing Unitary Multielectrode Semiconductor Device," US patent 3038085, Patent and Trademark Office, 5 June 1962.
8. C.J. Mueller and J. Hilibrand, "The 'Thyristor' a New High-Speed Switching Transistor," IRE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 5, no. 1, 1958, pp. 2–5.
9. G.C. Dacey and I.M. Ross, "Unipolar Field-Effect Transistor," Proc. IRE, vol. 41, Aug. 1953, pp. 970–979.
10. J.T. Wallmark and S.M. Marcus, "An Integrated Semiconductor Shift Register," IRE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 8, no. 5, 1961, pp. 350–361.
11. J.T. Wallmark and S.M. Marcus, "Semiconductor Devices For Microminiaturization," Electronics, vol. 32, 26 June 1959, pp. 35–37.
12. J.T. Wallmark and S.M. Marcus, "Integrated Devices Using Direct-Coupled Unipolar Transistor," IRE Trans. Electronic Computers, vol. EC-8, no. 2, 1959, pp. 98–107.
13. J.T. Wallmark, "Design Considerations For Integrated Devices," Proc. IRE, vol. 48, 1960, pp. 293–300.
14. J.T. Wallmark, "Field-Effect Transistor," US patent 2900531, Patent and Trademark Office, filed on 28 February 1957.
15. R. Nebeker, "Oral History: J.T. Wallmark," IEEE Global History Network, 17 July 1996; J._T._Wallmark .
16. S.M. Marcus and J.T. Wallmark, "Shift Register," US patent 3070711, Patent and Trademark Office, 25 Dec. 1962.
17. J.T. Wallmark and H. Nelson, "Semiconductor Signal Translating Devices," US patent 3005937, Patent and Trademark Office, 24 Oct. 1961.
18. R.K. Bassett, To The Digital Age, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2002.
19. P.K. Weimer, "An Evaporated Thin-Film Triode," IRE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 8, no. 5, 1961, p. 421.
20. P.K. Weimer, "Method of Making p-Type Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon," US patent 3258663, Patent and Trademark Office, 28 June 1966.
21. R.R. Haering et al, "Thin Film Transistor and Method of Fabrication," US patent 3289054, Patent and Trademark Office, 29 Nov. 1966.
22. P.K. Weimer, "Insulated Gate Field Effect Devices and Electrical Circuits Employing Such Devices," US patent 3191061, Patent and Trademark Office, 22 June 1965.
23. F.M. Wanlass and C.T. Sah, "Nanowatt Logic Using Field Effect Metal Oxide Semiconductor Transistors," Proc Int'l Solid State Circuits Conf., 1963.
24. P.K. Weimer, "The TFT − A New Thin-Film Transistor," Proc. IRE, vol. 50, no. 6, 1962, pp. 1462–1469.
25. G.B. Herzog, "COS/MOS from Concept to Manufactured Process," ST-6501, RCA Laboratories, 1976.
26. M. Heyer and A. Pinsky, "Oral History: Paul K. Weimer," IEEE Global History Network, 8 July 1975; title=Oral-History:Paul_K._Weimer&diff=42303 .
27. B. Lojek, History of Semiconductor Engineering, Springer, 2007.
28. S. Hofstein and F. Heiman, "The Silicon Insulated-Gate Field-Effect Transistor," Proc. IEEE, vol. 51, no. 9, 1963, pp. 1190–1202.
29. RCA Application Note, AN-201, Electronic Components and Devices, pp. 11–64.
30. S. Hofstein personal comm. with R. Ahrons, Mar.–Apr. 2011.
31. See D.A. Buck www. .
32. See cryotron webpage at IEEE Global History Network, .
33. J.W. Crowe, "Trapped-Flux Superconducting Memory," IBM J. Research and Development, vol. 1, 1957, pp. 295–303.
34. "Cryoelectric Memories," tech. report no. RADC-TDR-63-351, US Air Force, Rome Air Development Center, Oct. 1963.
35. R. Glicksman et al., "Instrumentation For Advanced Microelectronic Measurement," chapt. 10, Integrated Circuit Technology: Instrumentation and Techniques, for Measurement, Process and Failure Analysis, S. Schwartz ed., McGraw-Hill, 1967.
36. R.W. Ahrons, "Superconductive Memories," doctoral dissertation, New York Univ. Polytechnic Inst., 1963.
37. R.W. Ahrons,, "The Bridge Cell - A New Superconductive Memory Cell for Random Access Word Organized Memories," RCA Rev., vol. 28, no.4, 1963, p. 557.
38. M. Riordan and L. Hoddeson, Crystal Fire: The Birth of the Information Age, W.W. Norton, 1997.
39. R.W. Ahrons, "Superconductive Associative Memories," RCA Rev., vol. 24, Sept. 1963, pp. 325–354.
40. "Monolithic Integrated Electronics/Circuits on a Speck," RCA Spectra 70, RCA promotional brochure, 1965, p. 9.
41. B. Johnstone, We Were Burning: Japanese Entrepreneurs and the Forging of the Electronic Age, Basic Books, 1999.
42. G.B. Herzog personal comm. with R. Ahrons, 2011.
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