The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.01 - Jan.-March (2012 vol.34)
pp: 37-47
Charles Phipps , Sevin Rosen Funds
<p>Charles Phipps performed the functions of business development and then marketing for integrated circuits at Texas Instruments from the beginning of this technology in 1959 through the mid-1960s. In this article, he details IC development at TI during this period, the creation of markets for this technology in military and commercial computing, and the defining roles of Patrick Haggerty and Jack Kilby.</p>
history of computing, integrated circuit, microcircuitry, Texas Instruments, Jack Kilby, Patrick Haggerty
Charles Phipps, "The Early History of ICs at Texas Instruments: A Personal View", IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol.34, no. 1, pp. 37-47, Jan.-March 2012, doi:10.1109/MAHC.2011.84
1. With the exception of the works listed here by T.R. Reid, M. Riordan, and L. Hoddeson most of the written accounts of the early history of integrated circuitry at Texas Instruments were written by Kilby himself: J. Kilby, "Invention of the Integrated Circuit," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED-23, no. 7, 1976, pp. 648–654; J. Kilby, "Origins of the Integrated Circuit," , Proc. 8th Int'l Symp. Silicon Materials Science and Technology, vol. 98-1, Electrochemical Soc., 1998, pp. 342–349; J. Kilby, "The Integrated Circuit's Early History," Proc. IEEE, vol. 88, no. 1, 2000, pp. 10–111; J. Kilby, "Turning Potential into Reality: The Invention of the Integrated Circuit," Nobel Lectures, Physics 1996–2000, G. Ekspong ed., World Scientific Publishing, 2002. T.R. Reid, , The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and Launched a Revolution, revised and updated ed., Random House, 2001. M. Riordan, "The Lost History of the Transistor," IEEE Spectrum, vol. 41, no. 5, 2004, pp. 45–90; M. Riordan, and L. Hoddeson, Crystal Fire: The Birth of the Information Age, W.W. Norton, 1997.
2. The author owes a major debt of gratitude to D.C. Brock (Chemical Heritage Foundation) and D.A. Law (Computer History Museum) for their patience in reviewing multiple drafts of this article during 2010. Brock then undertook a major editing of the final draft. Without his effort, the article would not have been suitable for publishing. The observations and comments in the article are drawn mainly from memory of events over 50 years ago. Some memories remain vivid, and others are obscured by the "fog" of time. There are few notes or papers for reference, and only a few survivors are left to review my comments. It is likely that if one or two of the principals involved were still with us, the events noted here would not be debated, but likely the causes and effects of the shortcomings and success of TI in ICs would be. Also, my observations have been influenced by the past 23 years of experience that I have had as a venture capitalist.
3. IEEE Global History Network, "Patrick E. Haggerty," .
4. 1960 Texas Instruments Ann. Report; 1955 Texas Instruments Ann. Report.
5. C. Pirtle, Engineering the World: Stories from the First 75 Years of Texas Instruments, Southern Methodist Univ. Press, 2005.
6. See E. Millis, TI, the Transistor, and Me, Ed Mills Books, 2000.
7. E. Millis, Jack St. Clair Kilby: A Man of Few Words, Ed Millis Books, 2008.
8. W. Adcock, "History and Critique of Jack S. Kilby's Invention and Contribution to Monolithic Integrated Circuits,"14 Nov. 1967, unpublished manuscript in author's collection.
9. J. Kilby, "Miniaturized Electronic Circuits," US patent 3,136,743, Patent and Trademark Office, filed 6 Feb. 1959, issued 23 June 1964, col. 2, lines 1–6, pp. 39–43.
10. J. Kibly testimonial in P.E. Haggerty retirement brochure, Texas Instruments, 1976, author's collection.
11. F. Emery email communication with D.A. Laws (Computer History Museum), 17 Dec. 2008; Emery noted that, "We had shipped about 10 units" of the 502 by August 1960.
12. R. Platzek and J. Kilby, "Minuteman Circuits – A Study in Combined Operations," Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, no. 12, 1964, pp. 1669–1678.
13. J. Luecke et al., "Early Series 54 Development," May 2010, unpublished manuscript, author's collection.
14. J. Kilby and J. Lathrop, "Semiconductor Networks," US patent 3,211,972, Patent and Trademark Office, filed 6 Feb. 1961, issued 12 Oct. 1965.
15. In the 1980s, Chang founded the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) and pioneered the foundry business model in the semiconductor industry. Today, TSMC is the largest foundry company serving the leading semiconductor device houses.
16. P. Haggerty, "Integrated Electronics, A Perspective," Proc. IEEE, vol. 52, no. 12, 1964, pp. 1400–1405.
40 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool